In our Copenhagen print studio we work with a wide range of classical printing techniques. Since BORCH Editions was established in 1979, our master printers have refined and perfected many of these techniques.

All prints produced and published by BORCH Editions are original artworks in limited editions. Each print bears an edition number and the artist’s signature. Original prints are made on a variety of different kinds of hand made paper, always acid free and of archival quality.

Fine Art Prints 
While historically, the artist’s signature was included in the plate, it is now common for the artist to sign each print, either on the lower section of the sheet or on the reverse. By doing this, the artist approves of the quality of each print. The numbering of an edition does not necessarily refer to the chronological order in which the individual prints of the edition were produced. 

Apart from the edition there may be a number of further prints, artist’s proof’s, usually marked A.P. or E.A. (épreuve d’artiste) numbered in roman numerals, which traditionally remain in the artist’s possession, and printer’s proofs, marked P.P. or B.A.T (bon à tirér, good to print). Prints, which are not for sale, are marked N. F. S. (not for sale) or H. C. (hors commerce). Finally, there may be proofs from the different states of the printing plate and a few prints for special purposes, like the publishers archive or exhibition proofs.

Intaglio Printing

Intaglio prints are made through the creation of indentations in a plate’s surface. These indentations form the motif of the work. While the artist has a variety of possibilities as to how these indentations can be made in the plate, the printing process is always the same. After the artist has finished working on the plate, ink is distributed across it, making sure that it completely fills all the indentations. It is then carefully removed from the surface of the plate, leaving only the ink sitting in the indentations. The printing plate is then placed on the press, and covered with a sheet of moist, handmade paper. Both are coved with a layer of thick, soft felt and all is run through the press under high pressure. The damp paper is pushed into the indentations, pulling up the ink, so that the result is an exact inverted replica of the plate. The ink sits on the paper as a relief cast of the indentations in the plate.


Engraving is an old technique used to decorate metal armours, weapons and other object. The process of making an impression of an engraved metal plate dates back to the early 15th century.

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Drypoint is an intaglio technique in which the artist scratches the image directly into the copper plate with a hard, sharp steel point.

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Line etching

When making a line etching, an acid or mordant is used to etch the image into the plate.

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Soft Ground

Soft ground is a hard etching ground to which fat has been added to make it soft and sticky. This makes it possible to make an imprint in the ground itself, by pressing an object or texture into the ground.

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Open Bite

Open bite is an intaglio technique in which larger open areas of the plate are exposed to acid.

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Aquatint is a technique used to create areas of continuous tone on an etching plate, rather than tones created by hatched lines.

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Soap Ground Aquatint

Soap ground aquatint or white ground aquatint is a technique in which the artist paints with a ground made of soap, fat and white pigment directly onto a plate already prepared with an aquatint.

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Sugar Lift Aquatint

When making a sugar lift aquatint or lift ground aquatint, the motif is painted on a blank plate with a sugar solution.

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Spit Bite Aquatint

Spit bite aquatint differs from the other aquatint techniques insofar as the printing plate is not put into acid. Instead, the acid is applied to the plate with a brush.

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Photogravure is an intaglio printmaking technique. It is one of the earliest and most beautiful ways of transferring a photographic image to a piece of paper.

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Relief Printing

In relief printmaking the ink is applied to the surface of the plate, in contrast to intaglio printing where the ink sits in the plate’s indentations. The parts of the plate, which are not supposed to hold ink, are carved away. Ink is applied to the uncut surfaces with a roller or a dabber. Paper is placed on top of the plate and pressure is applied by running the two together through the press. The pressure can also be applied simply by rubbing the backside of the paper.


Woodcut is the most traditional form of relief prints. It is the earliest printing technique used in Europe.

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Linocut is a simple printmaking technique based on the principles of woodcut.

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Planographic Printing

In planographic printing ink is applied on an even surface. As opposed to intaglio and relief printing, there are no physical reliefs in the printing plate.

Monotype & Monoprint

Monotype prints cannot be repeated. What differentiates monotypes from all other printmaking techniques is the fact that the artist does not leave permanent marks on the printing plate.

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Salon_du_livre_ancien_et_de_l'estampe_2013_014 photo Lionel Allorge


Lithography (from Greek lithos: stone, graphos: to draw) is a planographic printing process using limestone as the basis of the artist’s drawing or painting.

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Offset printing is based on the principles of lithography, that oil-based ink rejects water and water repels oil-based ink.

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